Monday, December 24, 2007

Week of December 23

Merry Christmas!

New office within New York State DEC to focus on invasive species

ALBANY, NY (12/26/2007)(readMedia) -- With invasive species proliferating throughout New York’s waterways, forests and farmlands, Department of Environmental Conservation Commissioner Pete Grannis announced today the formation of a new office within DEC to focus on one of the state’s fastest growing environmental threats.

The new Office of Invasive Species will bring together biologists and foresters to develop ways to combat the problem, and work with universities, other state agencies and non-profit organizations to support research and raise public awareness. From zebra mussels to Eurasian water milfoil to Sirex wood wasps, hundreds of non-native plants and animals have invaded New York – especially in the last decade, thought to be linked to the rise in global shipping – posing threats to ecosystems.

The new DEC office will involve biologists and foresters in developing ways to combat invaders, also working with universities, other state agencies and non-profits to support research and raise public awareness, the agency said. Headed by biologist Steve Sanford, it will have a staff of four.

Earlier this year, Governor Spitzer signed a law to create the New York State Invasive Species Council, comprised of representatives of nine state agencies and an advisory committee of business, academia and conservation interest groups. In addition, the 2007-08 State budget included $5 million for invasive species programs.

The new office also will aid efforts to craft an integrated map that pinpoints invasives in and near New York, create an information clearinghouse (within New York Sea Grant, a research organization) for invasives and work with the federal government. To find more information, go to DEC’s Invasive Species page on the Web:
News Release


Connecticut group urging program to cull deer

JOHN BURGESON, The Connecticut Post

Odds are if a Connecticut resident falls prey to an animal, it won't be from an attack by a shark, bear, copperhead or mountain lion. It will be a deer. Deer, according to a group trying to control the animals' numbers, can be the cause of death to motorists in the region or they can be the source of chronic illness by spreading Lyme disease. According to the Fairfield County Deer Management Alliance, Bambi's image is nothing to fawn over. The alliance aims to blunt what it feels are the dangers posed by large numbers of deer in the region by encouraging hunting — by professional sharpshooters or sportsmen. The group's goal is to get the population of deer reduced to the point where Lyme disease will be eradicated and vehicle-vs.-deer accidents will be greatly reduced. According to the alliance, there are far too many deer for the suburban environment to support. The alliance is sponsoring a study in 15 Fairfield County communities to determine the density of the deer tick population and the percentage infested with Lyme disease. "People don't understand the threat posed by the excess numbers of deer," said Dr. Georgina Scholl, the alliance vice chairwoman and spokeswoman, who maintains that Lyme disease can be eradicated in the state if deer numbers are brought under control. Full Article

Bloggers note: While the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a native species in Connecticut (and surrounding states) and as such is generally not considered to be invasive, it has to some degree become destructive in its native region, with negative impacts similar to those of invasive species. The deer population has increased greatly due to human development, which leads to an abundance of habitat edges where deer thrive. Also, removal of predators has allowed numbers to soar. White-tailed deer have a tremendous impact on their habitat because of their huge numbers and the amount of food needed to support this population. Large numbers lead to overbrowsing which affects forest succession and other ecological conditions. Thus, white-tailed deer are occasionally considered to be pests in their native range.


Flap Over Mute Swans in Connecticut

HARTFORD, Conn. (Boston Globe) — The Connecticut Audubon Society is asking the state Department of Environmental Protection to remove swans from critical marine habitats, claiming the graceful birds are invaders causing serious environmental harm. Defenders of the swans say any move against the birds is unacceptable. "If the DEP tries to target the mute swan, we'll give them a full-fledged war," said Kathryn Burton of East Lyme, founder of Save Our Swans USA. The group has sued other states that have tried to curb the swan's rapid population growth.

Connecticut Audubon plans to lobby state legislators to give state environmental officials authority to control the number of mute swans. In Connecticut, the swans are a protected species. "Mute swans may be beautiful, but the havoc they wreak is anything but," said Milan Bull, the Audubon Society's senior director of science and conservation. "They create a marine desert below the waterline and drive away native species."

Connecticut Audubon says the swan population totals more than 1,100, particularly along the shoreline, which is already affected by rising water temperatures and pollution. The mute swan is expanding inland where it has been spotted in Avon and Woodstock. New York and Rhode Island allow the shaking of eggs until they are no longer viable, but Connecticut forbids the destruction of eggs and the hunting of any swan. Full Article


Pennsylvania Announces New Invasive Species Council Web Site

HARRISBURG, PA – People can learn how Pennsylvania is protecting against invasive plants, animals and insects by logging on to the new Invasive Species Council Web site, Agriculture Secretary Dennis Wolff said today. The Web site can be accessed by clicking on “Invasive Species Council” under the Agriculture site list at


Study: Garlic Mustard Suppresses the Growth of Native Tree Seedlings by Disrupting Belowground Mutualisms

The impact of exotic species on native organisms is widely acknowledged, but poorly understood. Very few studies have empirically investigated how invading plants may alter delicate ecological interactions among resident species in the invaded range. We present novel evidence that antifungal phytochemistry of the invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, a European invader of North American forests, suppresses native plant growth by disrupting mutualistic associations between native canopy tree seedlings and belowground arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Our results elucidate an indirect mechanism by which invasive plants can impact native flora, and may help explain how this plant successfully invades relatively undisturbed forest habitat. Link


Donation will help combat weeds on Maryland trail

A stretch of the Capital Crescent Trail in Bethesda, Maryland is about to get a little cleaner, thanks to a donation by a trail advocacy group. The Coalition for the Capital Crescent Trail, a group that fights for the trail and its users, recently donated more than $20,000 to help Montgomery County combat non-native invasive plants along the popular path. Full Article


Monday, December 17, 2007

Week of December 16

Updated December 21

Nassau County, New York, legislature bans the sale and dumping of invasive plants

Legislation was approved on Monday that prohibits the sale and dumping of invasive non-native plant species in Nassau County, New York. The County recently spent more than $1 million cleaning non-native plant species out of Mill Pond on the Wantagh-Merrick border.


Red Palm Mite Infestation Identified in Florida

TALLAHASSEE -- Florida Agriculture Commissioner Charles H. Bronson announced today the detection of the red palm mite (Raoiella indica) on a coconut palm at a medical facility in Palm Beach Gardens in Palm Beach County. This is the first confirmed report of this serious plant pest in the United States. Red palm mite is a pest of coconut, areca palm, and date palms in the Middle East and is probably widespread in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the Eastern Hemisphere. The red palm mite was first identified in the Western Hemisphere in 2004 on the eastern Caribbean island of Martinique. By 2006, the mite was reported as established in the Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico, Saint Martin and Trinidad-Tobago, St. Lucia and Dominica. In 2007 the US Virgin Islands, Granada, Haiti, Jamaica and Venezuela have been added to the list of islands and countries infested with the red palm mite. In all instances, this mite has established itself on various palms, with significant outbreaks on coconut palms. Press Release


Not quite eastern USA, but interesting nonetheless: Wisconsin DNR's Draft Invasive Species Identification, Classification and Control Rule

According to Wisconsin DNR, the proposed rules will establish a fairly consistent classification and regulatory system for all listed invasive species. The rules will set specific restrictions on actions such as sales, transporting and planting or releasing certain species to the wild. It will allow DNR to work with local units of government and landowners to quickly contain new infestations of species likely to become problematic. Full Article


NPMA: European Paper Wasps and Formosan Termites Prove to Be the Year's Most Influential Pests

FAIRFAX, VA.--(BUSINESS WIRE) -- According to the National Pest Management Association, invasive pests became a hot topic in 2007 as stink bugs, carpet beetles, and other insects traversed the United States in record numbers. This year, however, the European paper wasp and Formosan termites emerged as the pests that generated the greatest attention from homeowners and entomologists. These invasive pests were often highlighted because of their national prominence and the potential harm each can cause to public health and property. Full Article

Originally from East Asia, the Formosan termite (Coptotermes formosanus) infests over a dozen southern states, costing an estimated $1 billion a year in property damages, repairs, and control measures. Before 1981, the dominulus or European paper wasp (Polistes dominulus) was not recorded in North America. In its native region, P. dominulus is the most abundant paper wasp in those countries around the Mediterranean. It is also found in southern Europe, northern Africa, the Middle East, and eastward into China. It appears that this new introduction has had an adverse impact on the native species of Polistes. Some entomologists worry that the large numbers of P. dominulus will adversely affect species of desirable insects (i.e., butterflies). Fact Sheet


Halting the Invasion in the Chesapeake Bay

The Environmental Law Institute announced the publication of "Halting the Invasion in the Chesapeake Bay: Preventing Aquatic Invasive Species Introduction through Regional Cooperation," a report by attorney Read D. Porter that examines coordination on aquatic invasive species (AIS) prevention among the Chesapeake Bay states. The report focuses on prevention-related legal authorities in Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania in particular, and recommends actions to improve regional cooperation both within the existing regulatory frameworks and through potential amendments to state laws and regulations to enhance prevention. The report is available free of charge from ELI's website. Website


Upper Delaware Scenic Byway awarded national grant, partly to raise Japanese knotweed awareness

Narrowsburg - The Federal Highway Administration has awarded the Upper Delaware Scenic Byway, Inc. a $12,400 grant to undertake an Invasive Plant Species Educational Campaign and Interpretive Signage Project. The project will raise awareness of the detrimental effects of Japanese Knotweed on the Upper Delaware Scenic Byway corridor and offer eradication strategies. The grant will cover the Upper Delaware Scenic Byway, Inc.’s development and distribution of 20,000 copies of a Japanese Knotweed brochure in cooperation with the Delaware River Foundation, Inc. and the National Park Service’s Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Resource Management Division. Full Article


Some landscaping species to think twice about planting in Delaware

The University of Delaware Cooperative Extension discusses several landscape tree and shrub species that are often used for screens, windbreaks, or border plantings in Delaware. Each has problems and should be avoided in some or all landscapes. Species to avoid include privet (Ligustrum spp.), autumn olive (Elaeagnus spp.), spreading bamboos (Phyllostachys spp. and others), burning bush (Euonymus alatus), and Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii). Full Article


Paid Internships: Invasive species removal in Virginia

The Fairfax County Park Authority, Virginia, is seeking five highly motivated college students to be part of the stewardship team (more positions may be available) to help rescue our 24,000+ acres of parkland from a host of different invasive, non-native plants such as English ivy and kudzu. The paid internship will last ten (10) weeks, this summer from May through August. Full Article


Migratory Bird Die-off in Great Lakes Region Prompts New York DEC Investigation

More than 100 dead loons and other migratory birds washed up on Great Lakes shores in mid-November, prompting the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) to suspect another botulism-poisoning episode linked to the spread of invasive species.
DEC is investigating the die-off and, although results are not complete, preliminary evidence closely matches die-offs related to type E botulism that have occurred during fall migration every year since 2000 on Lake Erie, and since 2002 on Lake Ontario, according to state Wildlife Pathologist Ward Stone. The die-offs are tied to two invasive species consumed by birds during migration stopovers: quagga mussels and a fish called round goby. Loons especially feed on round goby. Full Article


Research Project: Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Invasive Weed Species

Summary: "A neglected aspect of global environmental change is how invasive plants might react to the rise in atmospheric CO2 level. Invasive plants can disrupt farm and forest systems and this threat is great for the southeastern U.S., with its numerous ports of entry and mild climate. We studied the response of several invasive plants by growing them under two levels of atmospheric CO2 (ambient or elevated). While most plants grew larger under high CO2, grasses showed a smaller growth response to CO2. We also found a delay or reduction in flowering under high CO2. Our findings suggest that although these invasive plants may grow bigger in a high CO2 world, their ability to spread might be reduced." Full Article


Pretty, but pushy

By Karen Nugent TELEGRAM & GAZETTE STAFF - Peter C. Alden watched as the well-dressed older woman bought a wreath decorated with Oriental bittersweet, a nonnative vine that he says is rapidly killing off forests, fields and wetlands — and probably trees and shrubs in the woman’s own backyard. Mr. Alden, a naturalist author, illustrator and lecturer, followed the woman to her car, and explained the environmental dangers of the aggressive vine with the bright orange-red berries. “She listened, she nodded. And then she said, ‘But it looks pretty’ and got into her car and left,” he said. Mr. Alden, who lives in Concord, Massachusetts, was not surprised. Despite warnings from horticultural societies, conservationists and state agencies — including a state ban with fines for violators — Oriental bittersweet, along with multiflora rose, a thorny shrub that produces bright red fruits called “hips” — are wildly popular in holiday wreaths, garlands and fall dried flower arrangements. Full Story


New York State Parks’ natural resources are threatened by pollution, invasive species, soil erosion and global warming

The New York State Council of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation today released its 2007 Annual Report to Governor Eliot Spitzer highlighting achievements over the past year and setting forth recommendations for improving the (1) infrastructure and management and (2) stewardship of New York’s 213 State Parks and Historic Sites. The report details the growing backlog of urgent capital needs at state parks and historic sites and identifies priorities of the State Council for 2008. Capital needs include remediation of existing facilities (65% of capital need), health and safety (15% of capital need), new facilities development (15% of capital need), and natural resources (5% of capital need) including invasive species management to restore habitats and ecosystems. Full Article


Monday, December 10, 2007

Week of December 9, 2007

Updated December 14

New National Map Shows Relative Risk for Zebra and Quagga Mussel Invasion

There is considerable interest in determining the range of habitats an invasive alien species could possibly reach. Since its discovery in the Great Lakes , the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has spread rapidly throughout waterways in the eastern US, negatively impacting ecosystems and infrastructure. A close relative of the zebra mussel and also of the Dreissena genus is the more slowly-spreading quagga mussel (D. bugensis), found primarily in the Great Lakes.

Based on published reports of the species' preferred habitats and needs for survival, Thomas Whittier (Oregon State University) Paul Ringold (US Environmental Protection Agency), Alan Herlily (Oregon State University) and Suzanne Pierson (Indus Corporation) created a map to better determine where the quagga and zebra mussel may appear next, in their paper “A calcium-based risk assessment for zebra mussel and quagga mussel (Dreissena spp.) invasion.” Their research appears in the online e-view version of Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. Full Article


Solar Bee not working to improve water quality and control invasive aquatic plants

The Geneseo Town Board (New York) will vote tonight on the future of the town's Solar Bee, one of three solar-powered water circulation devices that has been churning Conesus Lake. Geneseo, Livonia, and the Conesus Lake Association each rented a Solar Bee in April 2006 to improve water quality and fight invasive species. After two summers of data showing that the devices are not having the desired effect, Livonia leaders decided to end their pilot program. Geneseo Supervisor Wes Kennison says that he will recommend that his board also return its Solar Bee, which costs about $1,300 a month to rent. "The scientific analysis does not provide proof it's working," he said. The leaders who rented them were hoping they would control species like blue green algae, filamentous algae and Eurasian water milfoil. Full Article


Nassau County, New York looks to ban eco-unfriendly plants


Purple loosestrife, porcelain berry and the Norway maple are among a group of 63 invasive plants that Nassau County (New York) wants to ban as part of an effort to eradicate a rogues' gallery of pesky shrubs, weeds, vines and shade trees from local woods and waterways. Calling these foreign imports "biological pollution," Nassau County Executive Thomas Suozzi yesterday introduced a bill that would prohibit the sale of such plants by nurseries, fish stores and other outlets by 2009. Full Article


Paul Smith’s College wins pair of invasive species grants

The Adirondack Watershed Institute of Paul Smith’s College has been awarded a pair of grants to help control invasive species. The Invasive Species Eradication Grants, which total $84,228, came from the state Department of Environmental Conservation through the Environmental Protection Fund. Full Article


Lake Cochituate, Massachusetts, losing the battle

Plans to rid Lake Cochituate (Natick, Massachusetts) of invasive weeds are failing. The Conservation Commission may call a regional meeting with state officials to develop a management plan for Lake Cochituate, which has experienced a 68 percent increase in invasive weed coverage over the past year. Full Article


New York State DEC announces Annual Environmental Excellence Awards

The Nature Conservancy's Adirondack Chapter and associated Adirondack Park Invasive Plant Program (APIPP) were recognized for their efforts to eradicate invasive plants, which include tearing out tons of garlic mustard, Japanese knotweed, purple loosestrife and other plants from Adirondack roadsides. Full Article ; News Release


Relationship between invasive plants, fire subject of new report

The relationship between fire and invasive plant species is complex, to say the least. On the one hand, fire, like other disturbances, can create conditions that promote population explosions of invasive plants, so-named because they are both nonnative and potentially harmful to the ecosystems they inhabit. On the other, fire can be a management tool that curtails invasive plant growth. A new general technical report published by the USDA Forest Service’s Pacific Northwest Research Station explores this dynamic by summarizing completed and ongoing research conducted as part of the Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP). The report is titled "Invasive Plant Species and the Joint Fire Science Program". Full Article


State grants are coming into Schuyler County (New York) to eradicate weeds in Waneta and Lamoka lakes

Grants of $100,000 each will be used over a two-year period to fight Eurasian watermilfoil in Waneta and Lamoka lakes. Mill Pond off Lamoka is also included. Full Article


PhD Student Fellowships: Ecological genetics of invasive species

The University of Georgia has received a Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) grant from the National Science Foundation to support research on the genetics and ecology of invasive plant and pathogen species exchanged between the southeastern US and China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Full Article



Snails Invade in Florida

Snails have infested irrigation pipes in Cape Coral, according to city officials, and some residents are complaining their sprinkler systems are moving at about the pace of the small creatures. The species causing the most grief is the Mayan snail, an invasive species believed to have originated in Malaysia. David Rice, aquatic invasives coordinator for the commission, said there were reported populations of the snails in Miami-Dade and Collier counties. Populations of snails were reported in Mexico as far back as 1973. Full Article


13 more species hit Great Lakes via ships' ballast tanks

By Jeff Kart, The Bay City Times

They're the unlucky number of non-native, aquatic species recently documented for the first time in the ballast water of ocean-going ships that entered the Great Lakes. Any of the critters could be the next explosive invasive species, joining the zebra mussel and more than 160 other invaders already deposited in the lakes, mostly by marine vessels, argues Corry Westbrook, legislative director for the National Wildlife Federation in Washington, D.C. Full Article


Monday, December 3, 2007

Week of December 2, 2007

Updated December 6


Birds Pushed to Extinction by Invasive Species

Relentless sprawl, invasive species and global warming are threatening an increasing number of bird species in the United States, pushing a quarter of them — including dozens in New York and New Jersey — toward extinction, according to a new study by the National Audubon Society and the American Bird Conservancy.

The study, called WatchList 2007, categorized 178 species in the United States as being threatened, an increase of about 10 percent from 2002, when Audubon’s last study was conducted. Of the 178 species on the list, about 45 spend at least part of the year in this region. Full Article


Kudzu: A pollution problem?

By Brian McNeill /

Kudzu - the ubiquitous vine that covers shrubbery, trees, telephone poles and anything else in its path - may be pumping significant levels of pollution into the region’s air. University of Virginia researcher Manuel Lerdau and State University of New York scientist Jonathan Hickman believe that kudzu is emitting sizable amounts of ground-level ozone - potentially increasing smog, aggravating respiratory ailments and quickening the pace of global climate change. Full Article


U.S. House must plug leaks in ballast water rules

By Corry Westbrook, National Wildlife Federation

In less than two years, scientists found 13 new, potentially invasive species in the ballast water tanks of just 41 vessels entering the Great Lakes. None of the 13 had previously been found in those waters. The report, by David M. Lodge and John M. Drake with the University of Notre Dame, also confirms what many already knew: Ballast water is the most important source of new introductions into the Great Lakes, accounting for more than 64% of nonnative species. Once a species settles into the Great Lakes, it is often only a matter of time before it moves across the country. The evidence is clear that current ballast water regulations are not adequate in protecting U.S. waters from aquatic invaders. In the next few weeks, the U.S. House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure will have the opportunity to do something about that, as it prepares to vote on legislation that would set national standards for ballast water. Full Article


Invasive Plants Coming to America - Overview of the U.S. National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants

By Randy G. Westbrooks and Leslie J. Mehrhoff

Throughout history, as people colonized the Earth, they brought cultivated plants and domesticated animals along with them. Since European colonization of North America began in the 1500s, about 50,000 taxa of plants and animals (species, varieties, and hybrids) have been introduced to the U.S. While most of these species are well behaved and provide immense benefits to human society, a small percentage of them have escaped from cultivation and are a serious threat to food and fiber production and/or natural ecosystems. To date, about 4,200 species of introduced plants, or about 8.4% of total introductions, have escaped from cultivation and established free-living populations with the country. Recently, scientists at Cornell University estimated that losses to the American economy due to introduced invasive species are about $138 billion per year. Of this total, costs and losses due to invasive plants are now estimated to be over $50 billion per year. Full Article


N.J. researchers breed bugs to tackle pests

EWING, N.J. (AP) - A laboratory full of bugs might make some people nervous. But for Tom Dorsey, it's just another day on the job. "Nothing here bites, scratches or claws," Dorsey recently said at the 21,000-square-foot Phillip Alampi Beneficial Insect Rearing Laboratory he runs in Ewing. The state Agriculture Department lab, funded annually with about $1 million in state and federal funds, breeds beneficial bugs to fight invasive plant species and pesky insects that threaten the state's open spaces and agricultural crops. Full Article


Alternatives to Norway Maple

By Dr. Leonard Perry, Extension Professor, UVM

Norway maple is an invasive plant you should not put in landscapes, and for which there are several good alternatives. This maple tolerates heavy shade, so establishes well in woodlands where birds drop their seeds. There, with their own heavy canopies, they shade out native wildflowers. Their shallow roots compete in forests with other less vigorous native vegetation.

Norway maple is an invasive plant you should not put in landscapes, and for which there are several good alternatives. This maple tolerates heavy shade, so establishes well in woodlands where birds drop their seeds. There, with their own heavy canopies, they shade out native wildflowers. Their shallow roots compete in forests with other less vigorous native vegetation. Full Article


New York State Declares Nassau County Free of Sudden Oak Death

New York State Acting Agriculture Commissioner Patrick Hooker today announced that Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum), a disease that has killed oaks in the western coastal region of the U.S., is known to not occur in Nassau County. A bark sample from a red oak tree in the Tiffany Creek Preserve in Oyster Bay (Nassau County) was reported as positive for Sudden Oak Death in June 2004, however subsequent sampling and testing has proven negative.
"Although Sudden Oak Death has primarily been found in California and Oregon in the U.S., it is a great concern to our nursery and ornamental industries and forest health managers, because of the number of ornamental plant species associated with the spread of this disease," Hooker said. "I am relieved to know that this disease does not occur in Nassau County, however, we will continue to be vigilant in surveying for exotic plant pests to ensure a healthy green industry in New York State." Full Article


New York State Promotes Live Local Christmas Trees to Help Prevent Spread of Invasives

From an invasive species standpoint, real New York Christmas trees are an excellent way to prevent the introduction of invasive plant pests. New York trees take 7 to 10 years to grow and must be maintained in excellent health because they must be aesthetically pleasing to the eye. Trees grown under such conditions are naturally resistant to insects and diseases, and because real trees are grown here in New York, there is little chance of spreading pests from one area to another. Full Article


A Death in the Forest

This week’s issue of The New Yorker magazine features an article by Richard Preston titled “A Death in the Forest,” about the hemlock woolly adelgid’s (Adelges tsugae) spread through the Southern mountains and its implication for the forest ecosystem.


Invasive Rodent Spotted in New Jersey

Newark (AP) -- It's not the Jersey Devil, but its reputation is just as bad. A 20-pound rodent that scientists say is one of the world's worst invasive species has been spotted in New Jersey. State Fish and Wildlife biologist Andrew Burnett tells The Star-Ledger of Newark he saw one nutria (Myocastor coypus) swimming in Salem County's Lower Alloways Creek Township in late October. The critters are native to Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. But they've been showing up in North America. Burnett says nutria eat vegetation, causing animals and fish to lose their habitats. State wildlife officials are asking people who spot nutrias to report them so they can determine whether they're colonizing in the state.

Emerald Ash Borer in Dozens of Toronto Trees

TORONTO (AP) — The invasive emerald ash borer beetle, which has already destroyed ash trees in southwestern Ontario, has now been found in Toronto. Full Article